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The Intersection of Manufacturing & FDI: Job Creation

October 4, 2019

SelectUSA’s Investment Research Team works to create an environment where data inspires, supports, and informs investment policy and promotion.

This Manufacturing Day we are highlighting the positive impact of investors in manufacturing. Whether a business decides to expand existing operations in the United States, or a new international investor opens a manufacturing plant for the first time, U.S. communities reap rewards. These benefits can be seen in stories across the country.

Re-selecting the USA
Earlier this year, SelectUSA released a report titled Reinvesting in the USA: A Case Study of Reshoring and Expanding in the United States. It profiled six examples of U.S.-based businesses that chose to reshore or expand operations in the United States rather than abroad. Each of these companies had a positive impact on the U.S. workers they employed and the communities surrounding them – the kind of real-world details about manufacturing that can often get lost in macroeconomic analysis.

Companies such as Sherrill Manufacturing support U.S. jobs with their dedication to manufacturing in the United States. Between 2013 and 2014, Sherrill reshored its entire operation from Mexico to a facility in upstate New York. Sherrill’s “factory-to-table” model not only allows consumers to purchase directly from the manufacturer, but also enabled the company to more than double manufacturing employment at its New York facility. Today, Sherrill Manufacturing employs more than 50 workers.

Sherrill’s investment also supports a historic manufacturing community in upstate New York, ranging from suppliers who provide the company with U.S.-made steel to small businesses that serve manufacturing workers, such as the local pizza parlor. By choosing to reinvest in the United States, Sherrill Manufacturing has helped strengthen the local manufacturing industry, enhancing employment and the economic gains that accompany it.

The Bigger Picture: FDI in U.S. Manufacturing
It is also useful to look at the macroeconomic data on manufacturing investment in the United States. Our colleagues at the Bureau of Economic Analysis provide robust data on foreign direct investment (FDI) in the United States each year. In 2018, investment in the manufacturing sector represented 41 percent of the total FDI position in the United States, up from 32 percent in 2008. With a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 13 percent during the last five years, FDI in U.S. manufacturing is outpacing the all-industry comparable CAGR of 10 percent economy-wide growth. This increased representation of manufacturing in the U.S. FDI portfolio speaks to U.S. manufacturing competitiveness in the global economy.

FDI has an undeniable impact on the U.S. economy and U.S. workers. According to the latest available data, FDI directly supported nearly 2.5 million manufacturing jobs in 2016. This means that investment by foreign-owned firms in the United States was responsible for 20 percent of all U.S. manufacturing employment that year.

Of all source markets in 2016, Japan supported the largest number of jobs in the manufacturing industry (approximately 397,000), followed by Germany (287,800), the United Kingdom (275,600), and France (213,300). Of the FDI in manufacturing subsectors, transportation equipment supported the most jobs (509,900), followed by chemical manufacturing (364,400), and food manufacturing (301,000).

Where is manufacturing FDI going in the United States?
FDI in the manufacturing industry supports jobs in all U.S. states, territories, and the District of Columbia. Not surprisingly, the states with the highest levels of employment supported by manufacturing FDI are some of the most populous in the nation: California (where approximately 200,000 FDI manufacturing jobs are supported – the highest total of any state) and Texas (181,500).

In addition, manufacturing FDI is responsible for a significant component of overall employment resulting from FDI. In 10 states, the majority of FDI-supported jobs are in the manufacturing sector, with the highest percentage in South Dakota (66 percent of jobs supported by FDI resulting from the manufacturing sector), Michigan (64 percent), and Nebraska (63 percent).

Percentage of FDI Employment in Manufacturing 2016

Graphic for SUSA Mfg Blog 100219
Data Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis. Accessed 9/2019.

On a regional basis, the total employment resulting from FDI in manufacturing was highest in the Southeast (698,500) and the Great Lakes (590,900). However, the average employment level of a Great Lakes state resulting from manufacturing FDI was more than twice as high as that in a Southeast state (118,180 on average in a Great Lakes state compared to 58,208 in a Southeast state). As a result, more than 51 percent of all FDI-supported employment in the Great Lakes was in the manufacturing sector.

SelectUSA Loves Manufacturing in the United States
Whether you’re looking at a favorite local restaurant’s day-to-day business or state-level economies, domestic manufacturing’s contributions cannot be understated. Both the FDI of international companies in the United States and the reinvestment efforts of domestic firms provide this key support. On this Manufacturing Day, we’d like to applaud them and the hardworking U.S. workers they employ!

For more information
For more information on FDI in the United States, sign up for email updates from SelectUSA and visit SelectUSA.gov for resources such as FDI fact sheetsinteractive data tools, and informative reports. You can also follow and contribute to our #FDIintheUSA campaign on Twitter!

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Privacy Shield and GDPR

October 1, 2019

by Alex Greenstein, Privacy Shield Director

In April 2016, the European Union (EU) replaced its 1995 Data Protection Directive with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). As companies in the EU and beyond review their data protection policies to ensure compliance with this law, many are asking how GDPR impacts the three-year-old EU-U.S. Privacy Shield Framework.

Background on GDPR
Effective May 2018, GDPR governs the commercial use of the personal data, requiring companies to follow certain data protection practices.American And European Union Flag Pair On A Desk Over Defocused Background

The regulation applies to all EU-based companies, as well as companies outside the EU that receive EU personal data in offering goods and services or in monitoring EU individuals’ behavior. GDPR also governs the transfer of EU personal data to companies outside the EU.

GDPR has garnered a great deal of attention globally and has incentivized many companies to review and update their privacy and cross border data flow policies. The International Trade Administration at the U.S. Department of Commerce engages regularly with the U.S. business community to promote wider awareness of the GDPR’s new requirements. ITA’s Office of Digital Services Industries (ODSI) has also partnered with the U.S. Commercial Service team at the U.S. Mission to the European Union in outreach efforts.

For additional information about GDPR, click here.

 Relationship with Privacy Shield
Privacy Shield is not a GDPR compliance mechanism, but rather a means that enables participating companies to meet the EU requirements for transferring personal data to third countries, as discussed in Chapter V of the GDPR.

GDPR’s Article 45 explicitly provides for the continuity of prior European Commission (EC) adequacy determinations, like the adequacy decision regarding Privacy Shield adopted by the Commission in July 2016, under the 1995 Data Protection Directive. Accordingly, the EC’s adequacy determination for Privacy Shield remains valid under the GDPR.

Negotiators from both the U. S. Government and the European Commission accounted for the GDPR’s new substantive and procedural requirements as they developed the Privacy Shield Framework in 2016. Privacy Shield’s joint annual review, for example, was designed to satisfy the GDPR requirement for review of European Commission adequacy determinations once every four years. Privacy Shield’s annual review exceeds this requirement.

In addition, the Privacy Shield Framework created the Ombudsperson mechanism, which provides an unprecedented new channel for EU and Swiss individuals to seek an independent review regarding national security access to personal data transferred to the United States. This mechanism applies not only to data transferred pursuant to the Privacy Shield Framework, but also to other EU-approved data transfer mechanisms, such as Standard Contractual Clauses and Binding Corporate Rules, further enabling transatlantic commerce while protecting privacy.

To learn more about the Privacy Shield Frameworks, visit www.privacyshield.gov and check out our two-pager here.

The Privacy Shield Team is part of the Office of Digital Services Industries (ODSI) in the International Trade Administration (ITA) at the U.S. Department of Commerce. ODSI promotes privacy policy frameworks that facilitate the free flow of data across borders, leads policy discussions on privacy with international partners, and addresses trade and commercial issues on evolving information and communications technology (ICT) services. It operates within ITA’s Industry & Analysis business unit, which helps to create the conditions for U.S. industry to innovate and compete globally.

This post contains external links. Please review our external linking policy.

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Business Incentives Continue to Play a Key Role in U.S. FDI Leadership

September 17, 2019

SelectUSA is a program led by the U.S. Department of Commerce that facilitates and promotes job-creating business investment into the United States

Global companies are drawn to the United States for many reasons: a highly productive and educated workforce, low-cost supply of energy, direct access to the world’s most robust capital markets, and mucmoreBut how much of our nation’s continued success in this arena should be attributed to incentives given to businesses by state and local governments? They receive a great deal of attention, but how much do companies actually consider incentives when determining where to invest?

Business executives are quite forthcoming with answers to the question. Many of the companies that SelectUSA has assisted have made it clear: incentives are a very important consideration, but not the most important one. Companies consider a mix of variables and factors: costs, location, supply chains, ease of doing business, etc. Consistently, the United States stands out as the best place to do business.SelectUSA_FullColor-hires_575 (002)

The United States has topped the A.T. Kearney FDI Confidence Index seven years in a row. The Index, a survey of global CEOs’ confidence in the world’s markets, highlights the top factors considered in business expansion and how markets stack up. In 2019, pro-business regulations, competitive tax rates, and economic expansion helped lead to another year of U.S. leadership in international investment. But economic incentives were also ranked among the top of the list of considerations.

State and local governments create incentives packages for companies in order to attract investment and create job opportunities in their local areas. Often given on the basis of job creation or economic impact, incentives can include grants, loans, tax and job training subsidies. These incentive packages can sometimes total in the millions or billions of dollars, but their size is contingent on the magnitude of the proposed business project. The federal government also offers a wide array of incentives, from clean energy production tax credits to export credit insurance for small businesses.

The investment process itself can seem complicated, and many companies don’t know where to start. Luckily SelectUSA is here to help companies navigate the process and connect with the right resources and incentives at the local level. Visit selectusa.gov to learn more. The United States is open for your business.

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The EU-U.S. and Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield Frameworks: Why They Matter

September 13, 2019

by James Sullivan, DAS for Services, Industry and Analysis

The EU-U.S. Privacy Shield Framework marked its third anniversary on August 1st. Just this week, on September 12-13, the U.S. Department of Commerce and the European Commission conducted the Third Annual Joint Review of the Privacy Shield program (Review) in Washington, D.C.

In connection with the Review, the International Trade Administration (ITA) is spotlighting the origins of the Privacy Shield and its importance for transatlantic commerce.

What is Privacy Shield?
The EU-U.S. and Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield Frameworks were designed by the U.S. Government and the European Commission and Swiss Administration, respectively, to provide companies with a mechanism to transfer data from the European Union (EU) or Switzerland to the United States while complying with EU and/or Swiss data protection requirements.

At its core, the Privacy Shield Frameworks establish robust and enforceable protections for the personal data of EU and Swiss individuals as companies transfer the data to the United States. The Frameworks require transparency from participating companies on how they use personal data, as well as strong oversight from the U.S. government, all in collaboration with EU and Swiss data protection authorities.

Companies participating in the Privacy Shield program commit to provide privacy protections determined to be adequate under EU and Swiss laws. While signing up for the Frameworks is voluntary, once a company self-certifies to the U.S. Department of Commerce and publicly declares its adherence to the Privacy Shield Principles, the commitments are enforceable under U.S. law.

With the global economy increasingly dependent on cross-border data flows, the Frameworks are vital for U.S. organizations currently doing business or looking to pursue  business opportunities in Europe.

A Short History, a Major Achievement
In July 2016, the European Commission determined that the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield Framework provides adequate privacy protections for the personal data of EU individuals. Shortly thereafter on August 1, 2016, ITA began accepting and processing self-certification applications. A similar arrangement with Switzerland followed in January 2017. Since that time, ITA has taken a number of steps to further strengthen the implementation of both Frameworks.

Just this month, , the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield and the Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield reached milestones of having more than 5,000  and more than 3,300 participating companies, respectively. A full list of Privacy Shield participants is available at www.privacyshield.gov/list.

These participating organizations represent a wide variety of industry sectors and sizes, and more than 70 percent of participants are small and medium-sized businesses. All participants transfer data to the United States and have a presence there, with many U.S. subsidiaries of European companies having also joined the Frameworks.

PS Overview Blog Pie Chart 091319

Privacy Shield participants range from small companies (revenue less than $5 million) to large companies (revenue more than $5 billion).
Source: Office of Digital Services Industries (ODSI), Industry & Analysis, ITA.

A Transatlantic Win
U.S., EU, and Swiss companies are key Privacy Shield beneficiaries, as the Frameworks provide a clear mechanism to comply with data protection requirements when transferring personal data from the EU or Switzerland to the United States. By bridging the different regulatory systems in Europe and the United States, transatlantic commerce is preserved and promoted. In addition, compliance requirements are clear and cost-effective, which especially helps small and medium enterprises seeking to do business with Europe.

To join Privacy Shield, a company is required to self-certify with ITA and publicly commit to comply with the Frameworks’ requirements. The decision to participate in Privacy Shield is completely voluntary, but the public commitment is enforceable under U.S. law by the Federal Trade Commission or the U.S. Department of Transportation. The self-certification process is designed to be as clear and efficient as possible, and ITA officials are available to help companies along the way.

Any U.S. company certified under Privacy Shield must provide relevant individuals with information on personal data collected, including why it was collected and how it will be used. Privacy Shield also gives individuals options for limiting the use and disclosure of their personal data.

Finally, under Privacy Shield, EU and Swiss individuals for the first time have a defined channel to raise questions regarding U.S. government intelligence practices pertaining to their data. Privacy Shield also offers multiple avenues for filing complaints and seeking redress, and free independent dispute resolution to address other data protection concerns.

Why Does Privacy Shield Matter?
The economic implications of cross-border data flows are immense. Digital data flows underpin the $7.1 trillion in trade and investment between the United States and Europe.

Furthermore, they allow businesses in all sectors to cooperate across the Atlantic, engage in research and development with their counterparts, connect with global supply chains, and share data with subsidiaries located in different countries.

An increasingly digital economy also enables even the smallest companies to participate in the global marketplace—so long as they can transfer data across national borders to facilitate trade, investment, and innovation.

Moreover, by creating clear, enforceable personal data protection obligations on companies, Privacy Shield enables participating companies to better protect the privacy of their customers, promoting trust. Such trust ensures greater consumer confidence in the use of digital services and helps grow the market, creating jobs and opportunity, while providing valuable services to consumers.

To learn more about Privacy Shield and its importance to a successful transatlantic relationship, go to: https://www.privacyshield.gov.

Businesses interested in joining Privacy Shield can start the self-certification process here: https://www.privacyshield.gov/PrivacyShield/ApplyNow.

The Office of Digital Services Industries (ODSI) in the International Trade Administration (ITA) at the U.S. Department of Commerce promotes privacy policy frameworks that facilitate the free flow of data across borders, leads policy discussions on privacy with international partners, and addresses trade and commercial issues on evolving information and communications technology (ICT) services. It is part of ITA’s Industry & Analysis business unit, which helps to create the conditions for U.S. industry to innovate and compete globally.

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BEA’s New FDI Numbers Point to Sustained Economic Growth for the USA

August 23, 2019

This post contains external links. Please review our external linking policy.

Audrey Cheng is an intern for SelectUSA

Graphic stating: FDI IN THE USA, $4.34 TRILLION, 7.1 MILLION U.S. JOBS DIRECTLY SUPPORTEDThe data is in: the United States Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) released the most recent numbers for global foreign direct investment (FDI) into the United States, and they’re good news for the country’s continued prosperity. Total stock of FDI in the United States reached $4.34 trillion in value in 2018. This is an incredible $319.1 billion increase from 2017, when we had just surpassed $4 trillion in FDI.

Here is a breakdown:

  • The largest increases were in the industries of manufacturing, retail trade, and real estate.
  • Manufacturing accounted for 40.8 percent of the total FDI value in the United States, followed by 12.1 percent in finance and insurance.
  • Based on the country of the ultimate beneficial owner, five countries accounted for more than half of all the FDI in the United States. These countries aren’t just top sources of FDI – they represent the strongest economic relationships in the world. In order, they are: The United Kingdom, Canada, Japan, Germany, and Ireland.
  • Majority foreign-owned companies in the United States earned income of $208.1 billion on their cumulative investment in the United States. This is nearly 20 percent higher than in 2017.

To all of us at SelectUSA, this increase in investment is an assuring pat on the back but not a surprise. It reinforces what we know: America is the premier destination in the world for FDI.

As we look back at the BEA numbers of the past fiscal year, we are also looking toward a positive future. The 2019 A.T. Kearney Confidence Index ranked the United States as the nation likely to receive the most FDI in the coming three years. The World Bank’s Doing Business 2019 named us among the top nations globally for the ease of doing business—and number one among countries with populations more than 100 million.

This shows that the United States is doing all the right things to give companies the opportunities they need to be competitive. Businesses of all sizes have recognized that our huge consumer base, productive workforce, and pro-business policies here are unparalleled anywhere else in the world.

The U.S. economy is thriving and the continued increase in FDI will create even more career opportunities for hardworking Americans into the future. SelectUSA will continue to make sure that companies have all the resources they need to be successful in the United States.

To learn more about SelectUSA’s services, the U.S. business and investment climate, and how FDI benefits the U.S. economy, visit selectusa.gov and follow @SelectUSA on Twitter.

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The Next Investment Advisory Council is Here

August 13, 2019

Samuel Biddick is an intern at SelectUSA

Representatives from more than two dozen economic development organizations and business executives from across the United States will soon provide something invaluable to the federal government: their expertise on how the Administration can best attract and utilize the largest amount of foreign direct investment in the world. Today, Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross announced appointments to the department’s Investment Advisory Council (IAC). This group of 25 doesn’t only represents a diverse array of real-world business insight and experience; It represents the Department of Commerce’s continued commitment to American competitiveness.  

board meetingThe Council advises the Secretary of Commerce on strategies and proposals to ensure that the United States remains the world’s preeminent destination for foreign direct investment (FDI). This includes how policy should be developed, adapted, and expanded based on real market conditions. The diverse areas of expertise represented within the Council have allowed past appointees to make policy recommendations regarding issues including infrastructure investment priorities, improving U.S. workforce development initiatives, and creating/improving digital tools to support economic development – all to ensure that the United States remains the best place in the world to do business.

FDI is critically important to the nation’s continued economic growth and prosperity. It supports more than 14 million U.S. jobs and is responsible for $370 billion of U.S. goods exports. With a total FDI stock of $4.34 trillion, no other country attracts more business investment. The Department of Commerce aims to keep it that way. That’s why these 25 experts appointed to the IAC represent state and regional economic development teams, and global and domestic businesses from multiple industry sectors from across the United States. Their unique insight and recommendations will inform and strengthen the administration’s open-investment policy.

The new IAC will hold its first meeting soon, allowing new appointees to continue and build on the work of the first Council. We look forward to their recommendations and insight. For more information, including names and updates, please visit www.selectusa.gov/iac.

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“Exporting Mechanics Webinar Series II” for Growing Exporters

August 2, 2019

This post contains external links. Please review our external linking policy.

The U.S. Commercial Service and NCBFAA are proud to announce the second webinar series on exporting mechanics. It is focused on educational terms, definitions, and knowledge to assist the “intermediate” or “more advanced” exporter with their U.S. Commercial Service logoexporting questions, situations and interactions.

Listed below is the schedule for the series:

Best Practices for Export Compliance/Drafting a Compliance Policy – August 13, 2019
Learn about trade barriers as well as export restrictions.  The exporter will know how to comply with U.S. laws and what they can and cannot export.

Dealing with Suppliers, Partners and Buyers – September 17, 2019
Learn about working with suppliers to get origin documentation correct as well as working with foreign distributors on the United States export law.

Advanced Letters of Credit – October 8, 2019
Learn about the letter of credit and how it is effectively used to avoid discrepancies, and what the role of the banks is in the letter of credit process.

Duty Drawback and Refunds – November 12, 2019
Learn about the benefits of duty drawback and refunds as it applies to more complicated transactions.

ECCN Classification Numbers – December 10, 2019
Learn about ECCN Classification Numbers and how to use them more efficiently in international trade.

Commodity Jurisdiction – January 14, 2020
Learn what “Commodity Jurisdiction” is and how it affects exporters.

Drop Shipments and Routed Transactions – February 18, 2020
Learn how drop shipments and routed transactions are handled as a supply chain management method and how this can be an advantage in exporting.

Cultural Sensitivity Program – March 10, 2020
Learn about cultural norms, traveling overseas, cultural understanding with negotiations, and the duty of care for employees.

ACE Export Reports for Compliance – April 14, 2020
Learn how to cover the ACE reporting that will assist in international transactions and staying compliant.

The cost per participant per webinar is $25. One CCS/CES credit is earned per hour of webinar.  If you have any questions, please contact Linda Abbruzzese at Linda.Abbruzzese@trade.gov.