Archive for the ‘Foreign Direct Investment’ Category

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FDI Strengthens America’s High-Tech Competitiveness

October 5, 2017

By Maureen Book, Research Analyst, SelectUSA 

Map of United States highlighting high-tech employment concentration by metro area, 2015 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2015 County Business Patterns, Accessed July 6, 2017, factfinder.census.gov

High-Tech Industry Employment Concentration, High-Tech Employment/All Employment, by Metro Area, 2015 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2015 County Business Patterns, Accessed July 6, 2017, factfinder.census.gov

SelectUSA released its second industry-focused report: “High-Tech Industries: The Role of FDI in Driving Innovation and Growth” on Sept. 19. This report provides an in-depth look at high-tech clusters in the United States, and gives the first-ever analysis of the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) in high-tech industries. The report’s biggest takeaway is that FDI plays a significant role in these industries.

Where are high-tech clusters?

High-tech industries have a concentration of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics  and employ more than twice that of the national average. After analyzing the U.S. high-tech industry and considering participation of both foreign and domestic firms, SelectUSA explored the geography of high-tech companies in the United States by state, to identify large groups, or clusters, of employment.  The top employers of high-tech workers were California, Texas, and New York, while the District of Columbia, Virginia, and Washington boast the highest employment per capita of high-tech jobs.

High-Tech Clusters by Metro Area

Looking at metro areas with the highest concentration of high-tech employment, SelectUSA found that San Jose, Calif., tops the list with more than 34 percent of local employment in high-tech industries. They were followed closely by Elkhart, Ind., with nearly 33 percent, and Huntsville, Ala., with more than 31 percent. While the concentration in San Jose might not be surprising because it is the largest city in the Silicon Valley area, Elkhart and Huntsville both have industry concentrations nearby to make them important locations for high-tech companies. Elkhart’s economy is heavily concentrated in the transportation equipment manufacturing industry, and centers around recreational and commercial vehicle manufacturing. Huntsville is home to many aerospace and defense contractors, and military technology firms.

The Role of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)  

The data cited is provided by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. 

Line graph showing FDI impact in U.S. high-tech industries from 2007-2015. Three outputs are measured: R&D, contributions to U.S. exports and their contribution to value-add. FDI’s contribution to value-add has been rising steadily over time, except for the dips in 2008-2009, where all indicators experienced a shift downwards due to the recession. FDI’s contribution to U.S. goods exports has also been rising since 2009, except for the past couple of years, which have seen a decline. R&D spending has remained relatively constant from 2007-2015.

FDI Impact in U.S. High-Tech Industries, by Majority Foreign-Owned U.S. Affiliates Source: Source: Department of Commerce, U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Accessed Oct. 24, 2016, http://www.bea.gov/iTable/index_MNC.cfm Note: Data for some high-tech industries has not been included due to lack of available data.

Using our definition of high-tech industries and data published by the Bureau of Economic Analysis, SelectUSA looked at the role that FDI plays in high-tech industries. For those not familiar with the terminology, FDI generally captures a long-term relationship with the management of a foreign enterprise, which is usually linked with the real output of the country in which it operates.

Our data found that FDI stock in high-tech industries reached more than $1.6 trillion in 2016, and supported 2.1 million jobs in the United States. In fact, the high-tech component of FDI is quite robust; nearly 44 percent of all FDI in the United States is invested in high-tech industries.

Compensation, R&D, Exports, and Value-added Activities

Beyond employment, one must also acknowledge the significant impact that foreign firms in high-tech sectors play in other economic activities. For instance, U.S. affiliates of foreign-owned firms on average offer a higher compensation to U.S. workers than domestic . But FDI in high-tech industries offer a greater average compensation than other FDI companies in other industries. U.S. affiliates of foreign-owned firms also greatly contribute to the innovation sector of our economy, spending nearly $42 billion on research and development (R&D) in the high-tech sector. In 2015, they also contributed $154 billion towards U.S. goods exports and more than $373 billion towards value-added activities.

Historical-cost basis bar graph showing FDI entering the United States since 2007. Blue bars show FDI entering the country, but not classified as high-tech, and the red bar is all FDI entering the U.S. that is classified as high-tech. The gray line shows the percentage of high-tech FDI compared to all FDI entering the U.S. Looking at 2016, we can see that high-tech FDI accounted for nearly 44% of all FDI in the U.S. and amounted to $1.6 trillion. FDI in high-tech has also been growing by an average of more than 10% each year since 2009.

High-Tech Position in the United States, Historical-Cost Basis Source: Department of Commerce, U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Accessed Aug. 17, 2017, http://www.bea.gov/iTable/index_MNC.cfm

Source Markets Supporting High-Tech

We also find that Germany, the United Kingdom, France, and Japan are among the largest source markets for R&D spending, exports, and value-added activities in high-tech industries. Beyond that, they are also several of the United States’ leading trading partners. Collaborating with them on FDI reinforces the trade relationship and strengthens our nation’s bilateral ties with these partners.

For more information:

Please visit selectusa.gov to view the full report, other industry reports, international and domestic FDI fact sheets, and SelectUSA’s data visualization tool, SelectUSA Stats.

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Help Us Plan the 2018 SelectUSA Investment Summit

September 19, 2017

This post contains external links. Please review our external linking policy.

By Fred Volcansek, Executive Director, SelectUSA

It’s already that time of year again: our team is gearing up for the next SelectUSA Investment Summit. On June 20-22, 2018, the SelectUSA team will join thousands of international business investors, economic developers, and service providers at the Gaylord National Resort and Convention Center to convene the highest-level event of its kind in the United States.

Photo from the 2017 SelectUSA Investment Summit, June 18-20, 2017. Pictured (from left to right): Safra Catz, CEO, Oracle; Gilbert Lee, CFO, Fuling Global, Inc.; Greg Scheu, President, ABB Americas Region; Ludwig Willisch, President, CEO, and Chairman of the Board, BMW (U.S.) Holding Corp.

Photo from the 2017 SelectUSA Investment Summit, June 18-20, 2017. Pictured (from left to right): Safra Catz, CEO, Oracle; Gilbert Lee, CFO, Fuling Global, Inc.; Greg Scheu, President, ABB Americas Region; Ludwig Willisch, President, CEO, and Chairman of the Board, BMW (U.S.) Holding Corp.

This past June, SelectUSA held its largest Investment Summit yet. Hosted by Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross and headlined by Secretaries Alexander Acosta (Labor), Steven T. Mnuchin (Treasury), and Rick Perry (Energy), as well as the UK Secretary of State for International Trade Liam Fox, the 2017 Summit brought more than 2,800 international participants together. The 79,000-sq.-ft. Exhibition Hall was filled to capacity with economic development organizations from 51 U.S. states and territories. CEOs from prominent U.S. and foreign companies participated in armchair discussions and breakout sessions to discuss the latest developments in FDI. I encourage you to read my summary blog post here for more details.

Of course, none of this happened overnight; planning for this important event is neither quick nor simple. Our team spends many months fine-tuning and developing ideas into reality. We are dedicated to bringing high quality discussions and influential thought leaders and executives to the Summit every year. Next year will be no exception, and we want to ensure that it is not only relevant, but full of information that can be instantly used to increase investment in the United States.

The SelectUSA team is planning the plenary and breakout sessions, Investment Academy, Exhibition Hall, and more. There are a lot of exciting developments in the pipeline, but we want you to be involved as well! Indeed, much of the content of previous Summits came from proposals from our stakeholders and partners across the fields of economic development and FDI.

So, we want to hear from you. What are your ideas for topics that should be covered? Do you have a speaker in mind? Is there a subject that needs to be included? The Call for Proposals is live; let us know what should be included in the program.

Additionally, we are looking to fill the Summit events calendar with collateral and spin-off events, hosted by our friends in the economic development community. These events are often where new job-creating investments begin, and we want to build on the success of last year’s calendar. SelectUSA welcomes your input and we want to make the 2018 Summit our best yet.

For more information on the SelectUSA Investment Summit, please visit www.selectusasummit.us.

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#FDIintheUSA: Nearly 7 Million American Jobs

September 7, 2017

By Elizabeth Schaefer, Director of Investment Analysis, SelectUSA

As Director of Investment Analysis, I am responsible for leading SelectUSA’s data evaluation efforts related to foreign direct investment (FDI) promotion in the United States. So, it was with great interest (and I’ll admit excitement) that I reviewed the newly released preliminary 2015 and revised 2014 FDI activity data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), which follows the July release of 2016 FDI Inward Stock data.

You may be asking, “What does this mean?” Here’s the breakdown…

The updated data provides a picture of the inward flow of FDI into the United States, as well as the economic activity of U.S. affiliates of foreign-owned firms, from employment figures to research and development (R&D) spending. Overall, the numbers reflect continued, steady FDI growth in America.

But as always, it makes the most sense to start at the beginning.

FDI Definition and Parameters 

FDI, as defined by BEA, generally captures a long-term relationship with the management of a foreign enterprise, which is usually linked with the real output of the country in which it operates. In other words, FDI refers to businesses based in other countries and markets.

At the end of 2016, FDI stock (the total amount) reached $3.7 trillion, a 12.8 percent increase from the revised $3.3 trillion 2015 end-of-year figure. This year, on-year growth outpaces the trend in FDI stock growth over time. On average, during the last five years, FDI stock has grown nearly 9 percent each year.

Sources of Inward FDI Stock 

Sources of Inward FDI Stock

The latest available 2016 data show continued strong investment relationships with the United Kingdom, Canada, Japan, and Germany, all of which are historically large sources of investment into the United States. In fact, these top four sources of direct investment alone account for nearly half of all FDI in the United States. However, compared to the previous year of available data, this concentration has slightly dissipated, with economies like Ireland and Switzerland gaining overall shares of U.S. FDI.

The top four fastest-growing sources of FDI in the United States, calculated by looking at annual growth rates since 2011, are Thailand, Argentina, China, and Singapore. In contrast to the largest sources of investment, these top four relatively new sources of investment make up less than 4 percent of total FDI stock in the United States.

It is important to note that these figures attribute FDI ownership to the market at the top of each investment’s ownership chain – the ultimate beneficial owner or “parent company” – rather than capturing investment passed through intermediate markets via subsidiaries.

Industry Destinations of Inward FDI Stock 

Industry Destinations of Inward FDI Stock

The latest available data continue to show enduring ties between FDI and the manufacturing sector. Manufacturing industries attracted an incredible 41 percent of the FDI pie at the end of 2016. Diving a bit deeper, the chemicals, transportation equipment, food, and machinery manufacturing industries captured 64 percent of manufacturing FDI. Looking at year-on-year changes, the professional, scientific, and technical services sectors experienced dramatic growth, increasing in value by more than 28 percent. The diverse mix of industry and sector destinations for FDI in the United States continues to demonstrate that the United States is an important destination and market for globally competitive companies.

Jobs 

Direct Employment by Majority Foreign-Owned Firms in the United States

In 2015, FDI from majority foreign-owned firms was responsible for 6.8 million direct jobs in the United States, an increase of 1.5 million since the end of the 2009 recession. These are high-impact jobs, too; the average annual compensation per direct worker in 2015 was $79,040, almost a quarter higher than the national average.

Other Related Activities

R&D

FDI continues to enhance U.S. global competitiveness by bolstering R&D spending in the United States. The U.S.-based affiliates of majority foreign-owned firms spent nearly $57 billion on R&D activities in the United States in 2015.

Exports

Linkages between trade and investment also remain clear. Exports of goods shipped by majority foreign-owned affiliates declined nearly 20 percent in 2015 compared to 2014. Despite this dip, the $353 billion in goods exports accounted for 23 percent of all U.S. goods exports.

What’s Next?

You can explore this data and more with SelectUSA’s data visualization tool and updated fact sheets at SelectUSA.gov. Additionally, I encourage you to check out #FDIintheUSA on Twitter, our annual campaign that highlights the economic benefits of FDI at the state/territory and national levels through infographics and interactive conversations.